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230 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 503. 



UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. 

Alphonso Morton Clover: 'A Study of the Per- 
oxides of Organic Acids and the Hydrolysis of 
Organic Acid Peroxides and Peracids.' 

Lewis Ralph Jones : ' The Cytolytic Enzyme pro- 
duced by Bacillus Carotovorus and Certain Other 
Soft-rot Bacteria.' 

Ward J. MacNeal: 'The Pathology of Experi- 
mental Nagana.' 

Harriet Williams Bigelow: 'Determination of 
the Declinations of Certain North Polar Stars with 
the Meridian Circle.' 

Edgar Nelson Transeau : ' The Bog Vegetation 
of the Huron River Valley.' 

Frederick Amos Baldwin : ' On the Life History 
of Trypanosoma Lewisi and Trypanosoma Brucei.' 

UNIVEESITY OF WISCONSIN. 

Charles Elmer Allen : ' Nuclear and Cell 
Division in the Pollen Mother Cells of Lilium 
canadense.' 

Rollin Henry Denniston : ' The Structure of 
Starch Grain.' 

Susie Percival Nicholas : ' The Nature and 
Origin of the Binucleate Cells in Some Basidio- 
myoetes.' 

Fritz Wilhelm Woll: ' On the Relation of Food 
to the Production of Milk and Butter Fat by 
Dairy Cows.' 

BKYN MAWK COLLEGE. 

Virginia Ragsdale : ' On the Arrangement of the 
Real Branches of Plane Algebraic Curves.' 

Marie Reimer : ' The Addition Reactions of Sul- 
phinic Acid.' 

UNIVEESITY OF CALIFOENIA. 

William John Sharwood : ' A Study of the 
Double Cyanides of Zinc with Potassium and with 
Sodium.' 

William John Sinclair : I., ' The Exploration of 
the Potter Creek Cave ' ; II., ' New Mammalia 
from the Quaternary Caves of California.' 

COLUMBIAN UNIVEESITY. 

Frank Van Vleek : ' Improvements in Ship Con- 
struction.' 

LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIVERSITY. 

William Albert Manning: ' Studies on the Class 
of Primitive Substitution Groups.' 

UNIVEESITY OF NEBRASKA. 

Mrs. Edith Schwartz Clements : ' The Relation 
of Physical Factors to Leaf Structure.' 



PRINCETON UNIVERSITY. 

John Merrill Poor: 'Orbit of Comet 1900 II.' 

WASHINGTON UNIVEESITY. 

Samuel Monds Coulter: 'An Ecological Com- 
parison of Some Typical Swamp Areas.' 

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY. 

Frederick G. Reynolds : ' The Viscosity Coeffi- 
cient of Air and the Effect of the Roentgen Ray 
Thereon.' 

SOME ASPECTS OF MEDICAL EDUCATION* 
This association has been, should be, and 
we trust will be the storm center of legis- 
lation for reform in medical education. 
Since the memorable editorials of Wood in 
the old Philadelphia Times, and the mas- 
terly papers and addresses of Pepper and 
the practical action of the University of 
Pennsylvania there has been virile progress. 
In most respects it seems definitely settled 
as to the course of education a candidate 
for the degree of medicine should take. 
Questions of pedagogy are still debatable, 
but we take it that that student who wishes 
the quickest returns, the most lasting re- 
muneration, perennial stimulation of the 
intellect and continuous enjoyment in the 
pursuit of his labors, should take a college 
education of three or four years, a four, 
years' course in medicine and, if possible, 
a hospital interneship. 

Reference need only be made to the re- 
ports to this association, to the famous re- 
port of the majority committee of the Asso- 
ciation of American Medical Colleges, to 
the numbers of the Journal of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association, comprehensively 
devoted to education, and to many recent 
admirable addresses in support of the state- 
ments. 

There is talk about maximum and mini- 
mum requirements, about laboratory and 
hospital courses, the merits of didactic 

* Concluding part of president's address at the 
fifty-fifth annual session of the American Medical 
Association. 



August 19, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



231 



and clinical teaching — a mass of material 
brought forth from the viewpoint of the 
educator, or looking to the welfare of the 
medical profession. We do not minimize 
the value of such lines of discussion. It 
has brought us to the position we have at- 
tained. But what of the medical student ? 
Should we not look at education from his 
point of view ? Is he quite able to decide 
whether he should take up the profession 
of medicine? We hold that a great duty 
is due the aspirant for medical honors from 
teacher, and practitioner. It is a kindness 
due him to point out the best methods of 
securing such education as will yield him 
results commensurate with the time and 
expense required. It would be a greater 
kindness to be enabled to show him that 
by reason of intellectual temperament or 
of physical or moral qualities he is not 
likely to reap the rewards he is anticipating. 
The large majority of medical students 
do not have a good reason for studying 
medicine. They are ignorant of the mental 
and physical demands made on them. 
They are attracted by an uncertain glamor 
and a specious glory, and heedlessly they 
go in. The failure of a large percentage 
of graduates in medicine to acquire more 
than a bare existence, and too often not 
even that, proves that they were not edu- 
cated properly, not fitted temperamentally 
nor physically, to pursue its duties. Should 
they not have opportunity for, learning of 
the responsibilities and difficulties, rather 
than to have the brighter phases glorified? 
Would it not be well to have in our college 
curriculum a course of lectures for the 
student who contemplates entering a pro- 
fession, pointing out the rocks and shoals 
in his prospective career? An eminent 
practitioner, not connected with medical 
schools, would light up and darken the 
pathway in due proportions. Then, too, 
should not, as in the army and navy, some 
physical tests be required? The trophy is 



to the robust, and sad will be the career of 
the man who is physically handicapped. 

If there were any doubt about the value 
of a college degree to a man entering the 
medical profession it could be set at naught 
since the report of the Mosely Education 
Commission. Quotations like the follow- 
ing, while not pertaining to medicine alone, 
the result of extensive inquiry and mature 
deliberation, supported by the statistics 
they give, uphold the contention of a large 
employer, that ' for 99 per cent, of the non- 
university men, it is hopeless to expect to 
get to the top. ' One opinion they express 
is that "there is still room for the boy of 
marked ability 'to come through,' but that 
his difficulties are greatly increasing, and 
that, useful as he is, his usefulness would 
have been greatly enhanced had he had the 
benefit of a college training." Still an- 
other commissioner reports that while only 
'1 per cent, of the entire population of 
America has received a higher education 
in her colleges and universities, this 1 per 
cent, holds more than 40 per cent, of all 
positions of confidence, of trust and of 
profit.' It is well known that the 'geist' 
of the individual brings success, for which 
they say "it is recognized that the educated 
man takes in a wide horizon and puts more 
'soul' into his work." 

The essential of success in any depart- 
ment is diagnosis, which requires powers 
of intellectual penetration and discrimina- 
tion. President Thwing. has again force- 
fully urged that 'reasoning of the mathe- 
matics—and mathematics is only reasoning 
—tends to promote clearness and accuracy 
in perception, inevitdbleness in inference, 
a sense of logical orderliness. The study 
of the languages represents the element of 
interpretation. The study of history 
means the interpretation of life.' Are 
these not the main studies of a college edu- 
cation ? While they may promote scholar- 
ship, they surely cultivate thought. It 



232 



SCIENCE, 



[N. S. Vol: XX. No. 503. 



need scarcely be pointed out to this audi- 
ence that to be a thinker is the salvation 
of the physician. 

To the plea that the acquirement of a 
college degree takes up too much time and 
requires too much money, the material an- 
swer can be given from other sources to 
the effect that ' the men whom you are sur- 
prised to find holding such important posi- 
tions in factories, though not much over 
thirty years, are the very men who did not 
leave the technical college till they were 
twenty-three or twenty-four; the graduate 
may have been twenty-five before he donned 
a jumper, but in five years he learned more 
with the college training he had as a foun- 
dation than the regular journeyman of 
fifteen years of actual work in the shop.' 
The experience of teachers who have 
watched the alumni agrees in that the col- 
lege graduates get quick returns and soon 
acquire a position of independence. 

The poor boy, therefore, need not be de- 
terred, for if he has the spirit and energy 
to work his way through four years, two 
years or three years more will be but very 
little in the final summing up. If the stu- 
dent only knew that the purchase of the 
best education, whether reckoned in time or 
money, was the most economical investment, 
in that as to the former, a thorough educa- 
tion at first is time-saving in later years, 
and as to the latter, the money outlay is 
returned more quickly, in more immediate 
work and larger pay. 

There should be one educational require- 
ment — the equivalent of that for which a 
first-class college degree stands, whether re- 
ceived at a high school or university. 

After entering the medical school with, 
it is presumed, the proper educational at- 
tainments, his career, the first year should 
be closely watched. That school has too 
many students if it does not have enough 
instructors in the first year to be able to 
judge with a reasonable degree of accuracy 



of the character and moral stability of the 
men. This is not to be taken in a prudish 
sense or with too critical a scrutiny of hab- 
its which are the overflow of the animal 
spirits or the expiring exuberance of the 
boy approaching manhood. This can be 
said, that a student who does not play fair 
in his exercises, who cheats in one demon- 
stration or evades another, who does not 
show manliness, frankness and truthful- 
ness in his first-year duties, will not be a 
good diagnostician. He will cheat himself ; 
he will cheat his patient. The teachers of 
the first year, or at least the second, should 
know this and block the student there and 
then. It would be a kindness. Let us 
then agitate whether we should not have a 
certificate of manliness, a certificate of 
health as well as a certificate of mental 
proficiency, before we admit students to our 
medical schools or permit them to go be- 
yond the first year. Let us not be decoys, 
alluring them on to later destruction, but 
rather be guardians, wrapping the strong 
arm of experience about them to lead them, 
to the fitting pathway. 

Having permitted the student to pass 
further in his pursuits, we still owe him 
much. We must see to it that such course 
is given him the first two years of his stu- 
dent career that he will acquire such fond- 
ness for the science of medicine, such rever- 
ence for the exploration of its truths, that 
until his dying day devotion to it will be 
his stimulus and solace. As a corollary, 
we must insist that medical schools secure 
the best men in the market for these places 
and pay them salaries commensurate with 
their ability — good living salaries. 

It is in the first and second years of his 
career that the foundations are laid where- 
by the student becomes the medical thinker. 
To quote again: "The power of thinking 
should not be of a base and barren char- 
acter. The thinking should represent and 
be concerned with a fine and rich content of 



August 19, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



233 



knowledge. It should have the exactness 
of intellectual discrimination; it should 
have the fullness of noble scholarship; it 
should embody a culture which is at once 
emotional and esthetic and ethical, as well 
as intellectual." 

That a desire to relieve suffering, to ex- 
tend sympathy, to save life, is the impulse 
of the physician, we all admit, but where 
is the man among us who will not also 
admit that a scientific habit more quickly 
brings it about and more surely sustains 
and fortifies the humane instinct through 
the trials and tribulations of exacting prac- 
tise ? That prosecution of professional du- 
ties soon becomes commercial that does not 
have for its basis a true spirit of scientific 
inquiry. How miserable must that life be 
which conducts an exacting, drudging, 
daily routine with only material reward in 
view. Pew are the practitioners who have 
this sordid view; we can be as sure medi- 
cine would soon be forsaken if this view- 
point alone were considered. Hence in the 
laboratory of the first two years must be 
aroused and fostered the stimulus for life- 
work. 

The final years should be clinical years, 
and the last should be in a hospital. The 
medical school that allows its students to 
think such opportunity is not due them is 
most unfair, to them. As our schools are 
now constituted, most of them can not give 
such requirements. The students should 
know, however, such requirement is neces- 
sary. • What has been said regarding the 
preliminary college education applies equal- 
ly forcefully to the hospital training. He 
is thrice armed who enters the arena thus 
equipped. Medical schools that can not 
give such education are cruelly unkind and 
unjust to the students by having them think 
it is not essential. Medical colleges that 
pass off a hospital training for one that is 
not truly such fake their students. The 
student who pays well for his training has 



the right to demand such as to fit him for 
immediate action. 

It is not the fault of the medical school 
alone that he can not get it. The public 
that cries out when there is mistake in 
diagnosis, fault in treatment, and that 
shakes its head at the deficient education 
of our students, must share the blame with 
the medical school. The public admits that 
its individual members may at any moment 
almost be at the mercy of a half-educated 
physician. It is not necessary to recount, 
for it is well known, how on land or sea, 
by day or night, some event may arise in 
an individual life, the care of which may 
mean life or death. Even with this knowl- 
edge they withhold means to relieve them- 
selves. They admit the necessity of a hos- 
pital training. But they, and particularly 
the public in control of hospitals not used 
for teaching, say each medical college 
should have its teaching hospital. They 
do not appreciate that to give an education 
which involves a hospital course would re- 
quire an expenditure of $500 a year for 
four years by each student. It has been 
estimated that the cost of maintaining a 
plant and paying salaries sufficiently large 
to accommodate 600 students would require 
the above outlay by each student. Unfor- 
tunately, it is impossible to expect students 
to pay such figures, as it would render 
entrance into the profession almost pro- 
hibitive. It is manifestly impossible, as 
medical schools are constituted now, to 
educate all the students of the land proper- 
ly. Hospital training can not be given ex- 
cept by a few favored institutions, because 
the doors of hospitals are closed either by 
the governing body of the hospital or by 
the teachers in the medical schools. 

We believe, personally, if a decree should 
be issued that no medical school, including 
its hospital, should exist except on the fees 
derived from students, but little hardship 
would follow. The lessened supply of stu- 



234 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 503. 



dents would increase the demands on the 
practitioner, so that larger returns would 
follow. The poor student would sacrifice 
and strive to get a degree, knowing then 
he had a good asset. A diminution in num- 
ber and an increase in quality is demanded 
alike by the public and the profession. 
Such diminution in number would mean 
that the student would get back his invest- 
ment quicker and in larger amount than 
at present, hence good men would be at- 
tracted. If we could abolish sentiment for 
sense and educate accordingly, there might 
be betterment all around. As it is now, 
medical students receive part of their edu- 
cation through the bounty of the state or 
the charity of the public, as such education 
can only be given in endowed institutions. 
The public is taxed so that the prospective 
physician can make a living. Is it right 
that it should be? Perhaps a mechanic 
should demand such right to make his son 
a good workman. We must all admit it 
is the duty of the state to educate the youth, 
so that good citizenship is maintained; we 
can question whether the state should edu- 
cate the members to obtain a livelihood. 

With the same indifference that the pub- 
lic views an epidemic's march they allow 
hospitals that are engaged in teaching to 
suffer for the want of funds. Moreover, 
they close their doors to the advent of 
teaching in the hospitals under their con- 
trol. We must admit those who do not 
appreciate the true function of a hospital 
have some ground for their contention. 
Ruled by sentiment chiefly, unfortunately 
an impracticable master, they sympathize 
with the patient who still harbors the belief 
of old that the medical student is one of a 
class that prowl about not unlike harpies. 
The public does not realize the difference 
in the student of to-day and the student of 
tradition. We can not hold to account the 
governing body of the hospital who has 
the point of view that it is harmful to a 



sick person to have them under the surveil- 
lance of an alleged student rabble. We 
must admit some patients become alarmed, 
particularly in institutions where they 
know they will have the sympathy of the 
governing body. An analysis of motive 
will show that the usual patient who will 
not allow a judicious amount of clinical 
demonstration when the sense of delicacy 
is not offended, is truly selfish, in that there 
is prevented that increase of knowledge and 
development of skill whereby suffering of 
others may be alleviated. A little encour- 
agement from the officials would allay 
alarm on the part of the patient. The de- 
sire to help others is infectious, and when 
one yields in a ward, others vie in the work. 
The truth of the matter is that in hos- 
pitals in which teaching is carried on, rare- 
ly, if ever, do the patients complain. In- 
deed, it is the experience of those teaching 
institutions that judiciously conducted in- 
struction is appreciated by the patient. In 
one hospital we might name most of the 
inmates are pay patients, giving $7 a week 
willingly, because they know they are buy- 
ing the services of the best practitioners in 
the land— the teachers of medicine — which 
service they could not get at tenfold the 
figure. The fact that teaching hospitals 
are overcrowded, not by the poor alone, but 
by people independent of charity, shows 
that clinical instruction is not a bugbear. 
If the governing boards would know that 
while a few patients might be alarmed, on 
the whole most of them would be gratified 
by the attention paid them, and their sense 
of rectitude arid manliness appealed to by 
the satisfaction that they are doing some 
good in enlightening students, so that 
others could be relieved; that their admin- 
istration would be stimulated to do work 
beyond criticism ; that the nurses would be 
aroused to better activity while under the 
observation of those not connected with the 
hospital; that the internes would do their 



August 19, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



235 



very best to have most complete studies of 
the case, and finally, that the chief in attend- 
ance, compelled to do his best at the risk 
of his reputation, they would gladly open 
their doors, even at the discomfort of the 
few, but to the advantage of the many. In 
short, the hospital should have teaching not 
to oblige the medical school, but for its own 
survival and regeneration. The benefits 
the student derives by the object lesson of 
an orderly hospital can not be estimated. 
Will not every member of a hospital board 
admit that his own character, his own sym- 
pathies, have been benefited by his connec- 
tion with the hospital, even though, per- 
haps, he has not the advantage of an im- 
pressionable age? Can he not see, there- 
fore, how the youthful student can be influ- 
enced in thought and character and feeling? 
He can not lightly toss aside this respon- 
sibility, nor even 'hide it by putting the 
onus of medical education on the teaching 
hospital. Every dollar endowing a non- 
teaching hospital robs the teaching hospital 
which is engaged in this larger duty. 

It is true a class who are compelled to 
have hospital attention may not sympathize 
with this feeling. How can we obtain the 
confidence of this class? Let us organize 
such association of prominent people in our 
teaching centers who will agree to have any 
operation, any feature of disease witnessed 
by medical students, at the judgment of 
their attending physician. It would be 
well if the individuals of such an organiza- 
tion would agree, first, to undergo hospital 
treatment; second, to be the object of ob- 
servation by students; third, to have an 
autopsy performed in case of untimely end. 
Such association would rob hospitals of 
their terror and teaching of its dread. No 
one can deny that on the whole the public 
would be benefited from whatsoever point 
of view we look at it. Indeed, the public 
ought to learn that disease is an enemy to 
themselves and their country. Just as we 



make sacrifices in time of national warfare, 
so we should be willing to make sacrifices 
in the daily battle for life. Just as aristo- 
crat and plebeian, landlord and tenant, 
fight side by side in the former, so they 
should array in solid phalanx in the latter. 

But there are hospitals willing to admit 
students, and yet the privilege is not availed 
of. This arises because the teaching force 
of the medical college is not willing to sink 
its personality and allow the student to go 
wheresoever he will for his instruction. 
Courage and' some sacrifice is required per- 
haps. But, when one thinks of the mighty 
opportunity and the frightful waste, it is 
saddening. Every hospital should be a 
school. The fourth year should be so ar- 
ranged that the student could avail himself 
of the advantages of hospitals in the imme- 
diate vicinity. Let each teaching body 
have the student understand what he must 
see and do, and trust you the true student 
will see it at the best place and with the 
best men. He must be accountable, of 
course, with a rigidity that means the exact 
acquirement of knowledge. To this end 
the first two years could be well spent in 
the properly equipped laboratory univer- 
sity, whether in town or country, the third 
in the authorized hospital of the school, the 
fourth in extramural hospital work. 

Is it not anomalous that the hospital 
boards give to the nurses who are to act as 
aids to the physician the highest opportuni- 
ties, and yet deny it to those who are to 
give orders to the nurses ? This, of course, 
arises because training schools are the prod- 
uct of modern thought and have not been 
trammeled by tradition. 

But all this talk of the primary educa- 
tion avails but little if we do not see to it 
ourselves that education is continuous ; that 
from the day of our graduation, forwards, 
we do naught but toil, toil, toil. It should 
go without saying, as a mere business 
proposition, that unless we unceasingly 



236 



SCIENCE. 



[N. S. Vol. XX. No. 503. 



labor but little of the fruits do we pluck. 
It is demonstrated in a practical manner, 
for when we look about us and find the 
methods of those of our brethren whose 
labors are not in vain each one bears the 
scent of midnight oil. 

The development of post-graduate schools, 
the growth of libraries, the groans of the 
printing press, the enthusiasm of medical 
societies, all testify to the spirit of per- 
sistent self-education that is abroad. It is 
not for me to urge further, the importance 
of each of us taking from time to time 
months for study and reflection. Every 
active doctor should have his sabbatical 
year. We dare say, extended observations 
would uphold that in income a gain is one 
hundredfold for each dollar invested in 
educational outings, and for every hour 
thus employed, ten is added to life. To 
finance a medical man from first to last 
successfully, we dare say spend all net 
earnings of the first five years on self -educa- 
tion; 25 per cent, of each five years for 
further education; after ten years, 10 per 
cent, of the annual net earnings for an 
assistant, continuing the 25 per cent, in- 
vestment each five years. Health, happi- 
ness, increased usefulness to the community 
—a success which never, comes from eccen- 
tricity, equal to doubling capital every ten 
years, would follow. To this must be added 
the great mental satisfaction of a more 
clairvoyant vision in the prosecution of his 
daily duties, the inspiration that comes 
from the doing of things, the stimulation 
that arises from the solving of problems. 

In the course of our work it is necessary 
for us to halt from time to time and review. 
Few of us are they who will not find as our 
days grow fuller an unconscious tendency 
to slight our work, to become slipshod, to 
hurry over matters. It is partly an evi- 
dence of overwork. The post-graduate 
school is the salvation. No obstacle can 
withstand the continuity of drill, which the 



earnest of us keep in action. If, to con- 
tinue the imposition, asked what element of 
character is perhaps lacking to the greatest 
detriment to the profession and public, we 
possibly, one and all, would say courage. 
This is seen in the hesitancy which mem- 
bers of the profession show in giving an 
opinion, in advising an operation and in 
asking for an autopsy. How much confi- 
dence is destroyed by the want of free, 
frank avowal of the physician that he does 
not know on the one hand, or of clear, pre- 
cise statement of his judgment concerning 
a case on the other! The greatest success 
in life is confidence. How many lives are 
lost by the worker in internal medicine not 
advising early and unequivocally an opera- 
tion for fear he might be wrong in his 
diagnosis! And how many more are lost 
because the surgeon lacks courage to do, 
either, because he fears the patient may die 
and his record be marred, or because he 
may operate when it is not necessary ! We 
must admit we have had some operations 
done when they were not required, but let 
it be said to the credit of modern surgery, 
we have never seen an operation of such 
character, performed by the right man that 
did any harm to the patient. On the other 
hand, the resort to operative procedures 
early, and in cases that even yet are not 
considered of surgical relief, has saved lives 
and lessened suffering to a degree that far 
overbalances the now and then futile meas- 
ure. It may be assumed, without contra- 
diction, that every case of bad appendicitis 
that happens to get well without surgical 
relief has in its wake three to five that die 
for the want of an operation. In other 
words, the pernicious influence of a surgical 
case that recovers without operation is evi- 
dent in creating the hope that other cases 
demanding operation might get well with- 
out it. 

And the man who does not want an au- 
topsy—not only the centers of courage need 



August 19, 1904.] 



SCIENCE. 



237 



stimulation, but too often the entire med- 
ical storehouse needs refitting. Something, 
best known to the physician himself, we 
trust, is lacking in the one who treats an 
obscure case for a day, six days, six weeks, 
and then does not want an autopsy. If 
true to himself, true to the demands of his 
profession, courage will not fail him. In 
our mental and physical round-up, we must 
see to it that courage is given a new back- 
bone from time to time. 

But, fellow members of the association, 
not alone as members of this organization 
may we indulge in self-congratulation, but 
as members of a profession whose limitation 
knows no bounds, we may join in felicita- 
tion. Neither language, nor creed, nor 
country fetters our profession 's munificent 
sway. The thoughts of Ehrlich in Frank- 
furt, of our own "Welch or Councilman, of 
Kitasato in Japan, are correlated. The 
knife of Mayo in America, of Eobson in 
London, of Kocher in Berne contributes to 
the relief of suffering in far, Cathay. The 
founts of Lister's genius and Pasteur's 
divine inspiration bring countless blessings 
to England, to India, to France and to 
Africa. What a stimulus it is to realize 
that, howsoever small the contribution of 
the humblest of us may be, its impulse will 
be felt in climes near and far and ages 
present and remote ! What awe can not but 
overtake us when we consider each heart 
throb we study entwines us to Harvey of 
two centuries ago; with every percussion 
tone reverberates the sound of Laennec's 
voice of a century ; with each vaccine inocu- 
lation, the simple observation and reason- 
ing of Jenner to stimulate our question 
and deductions ! 

We rejoice together and cherish our his- 
tory, by the warp and woof of which we are 
woven to the past. What heritage for us 
and our children ! Dead must be the soul 
that wearies of communion with the spirits 
of the past; deep must be its slumber on 



which falls the thought of centuries; leth- 
argic its activities that are aroused not by 
the deeds of heroic men ! "Honor and for- 
tune exist to him who always recognizes 
the neighborhood of the great, always feels 
himself in the presence of high causes." 
We worship together our science, devotion 
to which brings forth character, smothers 
egotism, levels pretension, drives out soli- 
tude, develops such loftiness of thought 
which can see that 'against all appearances 
the nature of things works for truth and 
right forever. ' Of our art, let us see to it 
that when the final summons comes it can 
be said of us, "Greater love hath no man 
than this, that a man lay down his life for 
his friends." 

John H. Mtjsser. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



NATHAN SMITH DAVIS. 

It is the sad duty of this academy to 
chronicle the death of its oldest member, 
one of its founders, who during the more 
active years of- his life was one of its ardent 
workers. Dr. Nathan Smith Davis left this 
life on June 16, 1904. In his last illness 
he fully realized the coming change, which 
he foretold beautifully in one short sen- 
tence, 'I am going home.' 

Dr. Davis lived a long, active and useful 
life. He was a man of supreme earnest- 
ness and seriousness ; of great force of mind 
and strength of character; of high ideals 
and simple tastes. 

His intense and lifelong sustained mo- 
tive — or inspiration— to accomplish thor- 
oughly the many useful ends to which he 
devoted his wonderful activity, left scarcely 
time for recreation. It left no time or 
thought for indulgence. His life was too 
full of purpose to lend much of its strength 
to self -gratification, nor was there much 
temptation in his well-ordered course. His 
chief pleasure was the satisfaction of use- 
ful accomplishment, and he found his